Damietta Port AuthorityThe entity for which the Study was carried out
The Modern Engineering Consultant Office (MECO)
Dr./ Hamdy el Kamhawy, PHD
The agency carrying out the Study
August 2020Year of Publication
The project aims at Establishing a New Breakwater West of Damietta Port & and Upgrading the Eastern Breakwater of Damietta Port.Purpose of the Study
Results of the environmental impact study for establishing a new western breakwater for Damietta Port with a length of 3600 meters and an eastern breakwater with a length of 1565 meters based on studies of sediments, waves and winds:

    1. Several previous studies were conducted in the Damietta Port area to determine the reasons for the appearance of large amounts of sedimentation annually in the navigational channel.
    2. The winds and waves in the region were studied, which shows the effect of breakwaters in transporting sediments from one place to another as a result of the winds in the region, in addition to the places of siltation and erosion resulting from the existence of breakwaters.
    3. A comprehensive report was issued on the winds and waves in the relevant area in an effort to examine the area and detect the previous problems encountered by the port in terms of sedimentation and silt, which results in sedimentation within the port basin and the navigational channel.
    4. It was proven that the lengths of the current breakwaters are insufficient to prevent the sediments movement in the area of the port entrance and the beginning of the navigational channel, as the port was established on a land area where the peak of the western breakwater exceeding a depth of 7.0 meters and the eastern breakwater 5.3 meters, which places the peaks of the breakwaters within the area of the sea current flow. Many earlier studies have shown that approximately 65% of the sedimentation amounts occur in the first 3.5 kilometers of the navigational channel.
    5. Navigational channel facing the northeastern direction, which constitutes a trap for sands that may be carried by sea currents parallel to the shoreline, whether coming from the eastern direction or the western direction. The water level variability and the increased in the navigational channel depth result in pacifying sea currents parallel to the shoreline and reducing their speed, which leads to the accumulation of the sedimentary load they carry.

When the port was built, it was estimated, according to the designer’s calculations, that the average annual dredging volume would be about 1.18 million cubic meters, but the annual dredging rates have exceeded this limit, reaching 2.0 million cubic meters annually in 1990. In 2014, for example, the cost of dredging reached the equivalent of 8.12 million dollars at the time to dredge 1.744 million cubic meters of navigational channel.

Conclusions
– Increasing the breakwaters lengths to a depth of 10.50 meters is the most economical solution in terms of reducing annual dredging expenses and providing protection for the navigational channel.
– This is the proposal that was approved, and all project documents were prepared on its basis. Mathematical models were also created to demonstrate the effect of the breakwaters on reducing sedimentation in the port.
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